The 11 Days that Ended 11 Years of War: the B-52 and Operation Linebacker II

50 Years Later: Operation Linebacker II. While the brave aircrews from the past are no longer in the USAF ranks, the B-52 Stratofortress continues to serve to this day.

By Dario Leone
Dec 21 2022
Share this article

Generations of aircrew have flown those B-52s and gone on to retire multiple times over. The B-52 is an eternal testament to such a great product that Boeing built.

December 18th commemorated the 50th anniversary of the start of the largest operation of heavy bomber strikes launched by the US Air Force (USAF) since World War II. As told by Senior Airman Shelby Thurman, Air Force Global Strike Command Public Affairs, in the article 50 Years Later: Remembering Operation Linebacker II, Operation Linebacker II was intended to bring an end to the US’s involvement in the Vietnam War. The ceremony at Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana, on Dec. 19, 2022, was held to commemorate the sacrifice and dedication of the crews who flew and maintained the B-52 Stratofortress fleet, and the US Navy partners during Operation Linebacker II over North Vietnam in 1972.

With the US involvement in the Vietnam War pushing into its eighth year, the aircrews selected for this mission understood the gravity of the situation. Pictures from the first mission brief for the operation depict their grave expressions. “That picture truly encapsulates the stress and anxiety that those aircrew members were feeling when they revealed the target,” said Air Force Global Strike Command senior historian Shawn Bohannon. “That is when it dawned on them that they would be going into the absolute heart of one of the most defended environments in the world.”

B-52s at Andersen Air Base, Guam, during preparations for Operation Linebacker II in Dec. 1972.
B-52s crews are briefed prior to departing Andersen Air Base, Guam, for missions in Operation Linebacker II in Dec. 1972.

On the night of Dec. 18, 1972, 87 B-52s and their crews who launched from Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. Over the next 11 days, 730 sorties were conducted. The crews, in conjunction with US Navy carrier-based tactical aircraft, focused their attacks on the command and control operations at the North Vietnamese capital of Hanoi and on the war-sustaining complexes in the port city of Haiphong.

As an immediate result of the 11 days of heavy bombing- the treatment of the 591 American prisoners of war who were being held by the North Vietnamese was drastically improved.

The North Vietnamese were also willing to return to Paris for peace talks upon the conclusion of the operation. The cease-fire agreement was signed on Jan. 27, 1973, where it immediately went into effect. All POWs were released that same day, following the signing of the agreement.

“That air campaign was successful in that there was a conclusion to war,” said Bohannon. “But it was born on the backs of the extraordinarily brave crew members who had to face those kinds of threats night after night.”

Impressive photos show B-52 bombers taking part in Operation Linebacker II, the Christmas bombings over North Vietnam which took place 45 years ago
With their shipping plugs replaced by fuses, these bombs are ready to load onto a B-52 at Andersen AFB, Guam, for Operation Linebacker II.

Overall, during the bombing raids, US Air Force and US Navy aircraft encountered intense enemy defensive actions that resulted in the loss of 26 aircraft. Even 50 years later and the events of the war over, the sacrifice of those killed or lost will not be forgotten.

Airmen at 8th Air Force commemorated the anniversary of the historical raid during a ceremony at Barksdale AFB, on Dec. 19, 2022, paying respect for the lives lost.

“Operation Linebacker II is an important part of Eighth Air Force and our nation’s history,” said Maj. Gen. Andrew Gebara, 8th Air Force and Joint-Global Strike Operations Center commander. “The magnitude and selflessness of Airmen who served on those missions 50 years ago is a testament to the will of each warrior that fought for freedom, and they deserve to be honored and remembered. We will continue to carry on their legacy and continue to defend our country in their name. Their commitment and sacrifice helped pave the way for the world’s greatest Air Force.”

50 Years Later: Operation Linebacker II. While the brave aircrews from the past are no longer in the USAF ranks, the B-52 Stratofortress continues to serve to this day
From left, retired Lt. Col. Phil Blaufuss, Operation Linebacker II veteran and B-52 Stratofortress radar navigator, renders a salute during the Operation Linebacker II Memorial ceremony, at Barksdale Air Force Base, La., Dec. 19, 2022. Barksdale Airmen, civilians, and Operation Linebacker II veterans gathered to honor the actions of service members involved in the largest operation of heavy bomber strikes launched by the United States Air Force since World War II.

While the brave aircrew members from the past may no longer be in the ranks of the Air Force, the B-52 Stratofortress continues to serve to this day.

“There is a famous quote that goes something like, ‘Join the Air Force and fly the aircraft your grandfather flew,’” said Bohannon. “Generations of aircrew have flown those B-52s and gone on to retire multiple times over. The B-52 is an eternal testament to such a great product that Boeing built. We went from flying them World War II-style in Linebacker II and will continue to fly on missions yet to be conceived of.”

As we have already reported in fact, the mighty B-52 Stratofortress is still kicking ass 50 years after Operation Linebacker II (and more than 70 years after the first YB-52 performed its maiden flight).

B-52H print
This print is available in multiple sizes from AircraftProfilePrints.com – CLICK HERE TO GET YOURS. B-52H Stratofortress 2nd BW, 20th BS, LA/60-0008 “Lucky Lady IV”.

The first B-52A flew Aug. 5, 1954. After it became operational in 1955, the B-52 remained the main long-range heavy bomber of the USAF during the Cold War, and it continues to be an important part of the USAF bomber force today. Nearly 750 were built before production ended in the fall of 1962; 170 of these were B-52Ds, most of which were used during the Vietnam War.

The B-52 has set numerous records in its many years of service. On Jan. 18, 1957, three B-52Bs completed the first non-stop round-the-world flight by jet aircraft, lasting 45 hours and 19 minutes and requiring only three aerial refuelings. It was also a B-52 that made the first airborne hydrogen bomb drop over Bikini Atoll on May 21, 1956.

In June 1965, B-52s entered combat in Southeast Asia. By August 1973, they had flown 126,615 combat sorties with seventeen B-52s lost to enemy action.

Photo credit: Staff Sgt. James Thompson / U.S. Air Force and Jack Fellows illustration;

B-52 Model
This model is available from AirModels – CLICK HERE TO GET YOURS.

Share this article

Dario Leone

Dario Leone

Dario Leone is an aviation, defense and military writer. He is the Founder and Editor of “The Aviation Geek Club” one of the world’s most read military aviation blogs. His writing has appeared in The National Interest and other news media. He has reported from Europe and flown Super Puma and Cougar helicopters with the Swiss Air Force.

Leave a comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Share this article


Share this article
Share this article

Always up to date! News and offers delivered directly to you!

Get the best aviation news, stories and features from The Aviation Geek Club in our newsletter, delivered straight to your inbox.



    Share this article
    Back to top
    My Agile Privacy
    This website uses technical and profiling cookies. Clicking on "Accept" authorises all profiling cookies. Clicking on "Refuse" or the X will refuse all profiling cookies. By clicking on "Customise" you can select which profiling cookies to activate. In addition, this site installs Google Analytics in version 4 (GA4) with anonymous data transmission via proxy. By giving your consent, the data will be sent anonymously, thus protecting your privacy.
    Warning: some page functionalities could not work due to your privacy choices