Cold War Era

In the 1970s the Israeli Air Force picked the F-15 over the F-14 after having evaluated both the Eagle and the Tomcat. Here’s why.

F-14 Tomcat

The F-14 Tomcat and the F-15 Eagle are two of the best (and two of the most beautiful) fighters ever built.

First flown on Dec. 21, 1970, overall, the US Navy’s Grumman F-14 Tomcat was without equal among Free World fighters. Six long-range AIM-54A Phoenix missiles could be guided against six separate threat aircraft at long range by the F-14’s AWG-9 weapons control system. For medium-range combat, Sparrow missiles were carried; Sidewinders and a 20mm were available for dogfighting. In the latter role, the Tomcat’s variable-sweep wings gave the F-14 a combat maneuvering capability that could not have been achieved with a “standard” fixed planform wing.

F-15 Eagle

The US Air Force (USAF) F-15 Eagle was an all-weather fighter designed to gain and maintain air supremacy. As the first US fighter with engine thrust greater than its basic weight, the F-15 could accelerate while in a vertical climb. Its great power, light weight, and large wing area combined to make the Eagle a very agile fighter. The F-15 first flew on Jul. 27, 1972.

Israeli Air Force pilots evaluating both the F-14 Tomcat and the F-15 Eagle

In the 1970s, the US was always trying to ‘tread carefully’ in the Middle East. Strange as it may seem today, back then they were trying to ensure and maintain the balance of power in the region. Following the Yom Kippur War ceasefire in October 1973, the UN-backed agreement between Israel and Egypt in January 1974 and then the subsequent Israeli withdrawals and second disengagement agreement signed in September 1975, the portents were good that Israel would be looked upon favourably by the US government on any potential 4th-generation fighter purchase.

The requirement was for around 50 4th-generation fighters to see the Israeli Air Force (IAF) through to the 1990s — perhaps beyond. In June 1974, the country’s minister for defence — Shimon Peres — requested that a small cadre of experienced IAF pilots be allowed to test and evaluate the two main contenders to such a purchase. As told by Bertie Simmonds in his book F-15 Eagle, those candidates would be the Grumman F-14A Tomcat and the McDonnell Douglas F-15A/B Eagle.

By this time the F-14A had already been evaluated and ordered by the Iranian government — the Shah (a pilot himself) was impressed by the aircraft’s performance and at the time the order we wasn’t such an issue – until the I979 revolution. The differences between the F-14 and F-15 included that the Tomcat was designed around the AIM-54 Phoenix, a 100-mile missile that helped to give the F-14A the reach to defend the fleet against long-range Soviet bombers and cruise missiles. In the right hands it could also dogfight. On the other hand, the F-15 was designed for air superiority over the battlefield — something that appealed to the Israelis when you consider the battles they had fought since independence in 1948, but both would be evaluated thoroughly.

Impressed with the Tomcat

IAF commander Benny Peled had flown one of the first TF-15s in 1974, but this was a preproduction jet, so many of the systems to make it combat-ready were not actually fitted to the aircraft. Meanwhile, David Ivry (a former P-51 Mustang and Dassault Ouragan pilot for the IAF) had also flown a Tomcat while visiting Naval Air Station Miramar. He is reported to have been impressed with the F-14, if a little disappointed at the fact that the troublesome TF-30 turbofans had to be treated with care during air combat manoeuvres with a US Navy A-4 Skyhawk.

A team was eventually put together to evaluate both machines independently as the US had not allowed the Israelis to actually pitch Tomcat against Eagle. The evaluation team would be led by Amnon Arad, a former Mirage pilot and F-4E pilot and squadron leader. He would be joined by Assaf Ben-Nun (former fighter pilot and test pilot for the Kfir project), Omri Afek (an F-4E pilot), Israel Baharav (a former Mirage pilot and squadron commander during the recent Yom Kippur War) and navigator Aharon Katz. The rest of the team included ground crew and employees from Israeli Aircraft Industries.

The evaluations would have made for interesting reading at the time — coming from the most experienced and battle-hardened jet fighter pilots then seen: these pilots had around 24 kills between them. They wanted to see how these teen-series jets dealt with everything from low and slow targets to fast targets replicating the irritating MiG-25Rs that were making nuisance flights over Israel.

The F-15 Eagle is the best choice for the Israeli Air Force

This print is available in multiple sizes from – CLICK HERE TO GET YOURS. F-15C Eagle 36th TFW, 22d TFS, BT/79-051 / 1981

Around 10 flights were made in the two-seat F-15 — a full-scale development aircraft with the new systems on board — as well as extensive use of the McDD F-15 simulator. Sorties were made against both A-4 and F-4 aircraft and the Israelis came away impressed with the F-15 especially. They found that the F-15 could easily best both aircraft, that the weapons systems were ‘user-friendly’, that the agility of the Eagle was astounding and that the power allowed them to ‘sustain g’ like nothing else they’d flown before. The cockpit also gave unrivalled visibility for dogfighting.

In comparison with the two-seat F-14 which the team flew at Miramar, they were disappointed in the dogfighting ability of the Tomcat – something the IAF excelled at. Often it was found that an air combat manoeuvring mission against the humble A-4 Skyhawk could end up in a stalemate. It soon became clear that the F-15 Eagle was the best choice for the IAF and – better still – the aircraft was some millions of dollars cheaper per unit than the Tomcat.

Israel begins to receive the Eagle

Politically though, issues over an F-15 sale would not he cleared until that second disengagement agreement of September 1975, but then, within a month, the US agreed to supply the Eagle in numbers. Under the terms of the agreement, entitled ‘Peace Fox l’, Israel began receiving its new fighter in the form of four full-scale development aircraft in December 1976, followed up by the delivery of two F-15Bs and 19 F-15As under the terms of Peace Fox II. This would cost Israel around tiled $625 million and was superseded by Peace Fox III where 18 F-15Cs and eight F-15Ds were ordered. In addition — during the early 1990s — following Israel staying its hand during Desert Storm when it was attacked by Iraqi Scud missiles, the IAF was sent 10 early F-15A and Bs which were refurbished as a thank you’ by the US government.

F-15 Eagle is published by Mortons Books and is available to order here.

This model is available in multiple sizes from AirModels – CLICK HERE TO GET YOURS.

Photo credit: Israeli Air Force and U.S. Navy

Dario Leone

Dario Leone is an aviation, defense and military writer. He is the Founder and Editor of “The Aviation Geek Club” one of the world’s most read military aviation blogs. His writing has appeared in The National Interest and other news media. He has reported from Europe and flown Super Puma and Cougar helicopters with the Swiss Air Force.

View Comments

  • Had the IAF purchased the Tomcat it’s not hard to imagine them re-engining it asap.
    What I appreciated about the Eagle Tomcat rivalry was how they complemented each other.

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